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Roman Timeline 1st Century AD



4 AD

Adoption of Tiberius as heir to Augustus after the deaths of Gaius and Lucius Caesar.

5 AD

Tiberius campaigns in Germania.

6 AD

Revolts in Pannonia and Illyricum.

8 AD

The future emperor Claudius is appointed an augur, his only official post under Augustus.

9 AD

Birth of the Emperor Vespasian in the town of Reate.

9 AD

The Battle of Teutoburg Forest between P. Quintilius ending in a complete route (including the destruction of 3 legions) for Rome.

9 AD

The Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace) is completed by Augustus in Rome.

14 AD

Death of the Emperor Augustus, in the city of Nola in Italy. Ascension of Tiberius

14 AD

Mutiny of the Rhine legions upon the news of the death of Augustus which is quelled by Germanicus Caesar.

14 - 16 AD

Germanicus Caesar campaigns against the Germanic tribes.

14 AD

L. Aelius Sejanus is appointed as Praetorian Prefect.

14 AD

Death of the Roman historian Livy, in the city of Patavium, Italy.

14 AD

The aqueduct, the Pont du Gard, is completed near modern Nimes in Gaul.

15 AD

Emperor Tiberius transfers the elections from the popular assemblies to the Senate.

15 AD

Birth of the Emperor Vitellius.

17 AD

Death of the Roman writer Ovid, who died in Tomis, Moesia while exile, apparantly because of offenses to Augustus' moral code.

19 AD

Death of Germanicus, possibly but not necessarily by the direct order of Tiberius.

22 AD

Construction of the Castra Praetoria (Praetorian barracks) by Sejanus is completed and the Praetorians are forever changed into a political force.

23 AD

Birth of the Roman historian Pliny the Elder, in the town of Novum Comum, in Italy.

26 AD

Pontius Pilate is appointed as the prefect of Judaea.

26 AD

Tiberius retires to his estate on Capri, effectively giving Sejanus unlimited imperial authority.

28 AD

John the Baptist is executed by Herod Antipas, son of King Herod in Judaea.

29 AD

Livia, the wife of Augustus dies in Rome at the age of 86.

30 AD

Birth of the Emperor Nerva in the city of Narnia.

31 AD

Execution of Sejanus, for conspiracy against Tiberius. Replaced by Gn. Naevius Sutorius Macro.

32 - 36 AD

Estimated date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

32 AD

Birth of the Emperor Otho in the city of Ferentium.

37 AD

Death of Tiberius on the island of Capri. Caligula ascends to the throne.

37 AD

Birth of the historian Flavius Josephus, in Jerusalem.Birth of the Emperor Nero, in the town of Antium.

39 AD

Caligula marches with the legions to Germania in a 'mock' campaign.

39 AD

Caligula bridges the Bay of Naples with boats from Baiae to Puteoli

40 AD

Caligula marches to the English Channel with the intention of invading Britain. Instead, the legions collect sea shells and he returns to Rome to celebrate a fabricated triumph.

40 AD

Birth of the Emperor Titus. Birth of the Roman general Gn. Julius Agricola, in the province of Gallia Narbonesis.

40 AD

Emperor Caligula orders that a statue of himself is to be erected in the temple at Jerusalem. Herod delays implementation long enough to prevent wide-spread revolt in Judaea.

41 AD

Caligula is assassinated by the Praetorian Guard. Claudius, supposedly found hiding in the curtains of the palace is hailed the new Caesar.

41 AD

The Roman writer Seneca is banished to the island of Corsica after he is accused of committing adultery with Claudius's niece Livilla.

41 AD

Livia, the wife of Augustus, is finally deified by the senate.

43 AD

Claudius begins the first large-scale Roman invasion of Britain, at first under the command of general A. Plautius.

43 AD

Lycia is annexed into the empire.

44 AD

Judaea is annexed as a Roman province after the death of Herod Agrippa.

46 AD

The client kingdom of Thrace is annexed into the empire as a province.

47 AD

The Roman general Gn. Domitius Corbulo defeats the Frisii.

47 AD

Claudius celebrates the Secular Games, as Rome celebrates the 800th anniversary of the founding of the city.

49 AD

Claudius passes an edict expelling all Jews from Rome.

50 AD

Claudius adopts Nero as heir.

51 AD

Birth of the Emperor Domitian in Rome.

54 AD

Death and deification of Claudius. Nero ascends to the throne.

56 AD

Birth of the great Roman historian Tacitus, probably in Rome.

56 - 57 AD

Nero expels actors from Rome and dictates reforms of circuses and festivals.

58 AD

The Roman general Gn. Domitius Corbulo conquers Armenia, after the capture of the capital Artaxata.

61 AD

In BritainBoudicca, the queen of the Iceni tribe, leads a revolt against Roman occupation.

62 AD

Birth of the Roman historian Pliny the Younger in Italy.

62 AD

Suetonius Paullus defeats the Iceni revolt of Boudicca, who commits suicide.

62 AD

Lucius Caesennius Paetus in Armenia surrenders to invading Parthians after a defeat at Rhandeia. Gn. Domitius Corbulo returns and invades Parthia.

62 AD

Nero divorces his wife Octavia and marries his mistress Poppaea Sabina.

62 AD

The first signs of volcanic activity are recorded in Mt. Vesuvius, when an earthquake damages some nearby Campanian towns. (Much of which damage would never be repaired prior to its eruption some 18 years later.)

64 AD

The Great Fire of Rome speculated to have been started by Nero to make room for his palace. Christians Persecuted as scapegoats. Nero begins construction of the domus aurea (the Golden House).

65 AD

A plot against the Emperor Nero, known as the 'Pisonian Conspiracy', led by G. Calpurnius Piso. Nineteen men are executed or forced to commit suicide.

65 AD

Death of Nero's wife, Poppaea, whom he kicked to death after an argument.

67 AD

The future Emperor Vespasian is sent to Judaea to put down a Jewish revolt.

67 AD

Nero enters the Olympic games and is named the winner of every he event he enters.

67 AD

Death of Paul the Apostle.

68 AD

Widespread revolt forces Nero to commit suicide, sparking civil war.

68 - 69 AD

Year of the four emperors.

69 AD

Death of the Emperor Galba. Executed by members of the Praetorian Guard.

69 AD

The German legions proclaim Vitellius as emperor. He defeats rival Otho at Bedriacum and is victorious. Otho commits suicide.

69 AD

A fire breaks out on the Capitoline Hill, destroying much of Rome's archives.

69 AD

Battle of Cremona, in which Emperor Vitellius is defeated (killed) by one of the armies of Vespasian.

69 AD

Birth of the Roman historian Suetonius, in Rome.

69 AD

Vespasian proclaimed emperor, and while consolidation would take another 6 months his reign marked the end of the civil wars.

70 AD

Titus, the son of Emperor Vespasian, captures Jerusalem after a four month siege.

71 - 74 AD

Petilius Cerealis conquers the Brigantes in modern Yorkshire.

73 AD

The final Jewish stronghold, Masada, is captured after a long seige.

73 AD

The nomadic Sarmatians, the Alans, invade Parthia and Armenia.

74 - 78 AD

The governor of Britain, Julius Frontinus, defeats the Silures in modern South Wales.

75 AD

The construction of the Temple of Peace is completed. The temple of Jupiter Capitolinus is rebuilt.

76 AD

Parthian invasion of Syria is repulsed.

76 AD

Birth of the Emperor Hadrian, in Rome.

77 - 84 AD

Final conquest of Britain by Gn. Julius Agricola.

77 AD

The Roman writer Pliny the Elder completes his work Naturalis Historia (Natural History).

79 AD

Death of Vespasian. Ascension of his son, Titus.

79 AD

Mt. Vesuvius erupts burying the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Pliny the Elder suffocates by getting too close in order to record the event.

80 AD

The Flavian Ampitheatre (Colosseum), begun by Vespasian, is completed by the Emperor Titus.

80 AD

Destruction of the Capitoline temple. The dedication of the Baths of Titus.

81 AD

Arch of Titus is constructed in Rome.

81 AD

Death of Titus, possibly at the hands of his brother Domitian. Domitian succeeds Titus as Emperor.

81 AD

The Roman general Gn. Julius Agricola campaigns in Caledonia.

82 AD

The Capitoline temple is restored and dedicated.

83 AD

Domitian campaigns in Germania.

84 AD

The Roman general Gn. Julius Agricola defeats the Caledonians under Calgacus at the battle of Mons Graupius.

85 AD

Invasion of Moesia by the Dacians under Decebalus.

86 AD

Emperor Antoninus Pius is born in the town of Lanuvium.

87 AD

Gn. Julius Agricola is recalled to Rome by Emperor Domitian, who seemed to be jealous of Agricola's victories.

88 AD

Tettius Julianus defeats the Dacians at Tapae.

89 AD

A short-lived peace treaty is signed between Rome and Dacia by Emperor Domitian and King Decebalus.

89 AD

Domitian campaigns aganst the Chatti.

90 AD

The head of the Vestal Virgins, Cornelia, is buried alive as punishment for promiscuity. Her lovers are beaten to death.

93 AD

Death of the Roman general Gn. Julius Agricola.

93 - 96 AD

'Reign of Terror' of Domitian.

96 AD

Assassination of the Emperor Domitian.

96 AD

With the ascension of Nerva, the era of the "Five Good Emperors" begins.

97 AD

The future emperor Trajan is made governor in Germania and adopted as 'Caesar' or heir by Nerva.

97 AD

The alimenta (a form of social welfare for poor children and aid for farmers) is instituted.

97 AD

A Chinese embassy en route to Rome is perhaps turned back in Mesopotamia by the Parthians.

98 AD

Death of the Emperor Nerva who is succeeded by Trajan.

98 AD

Tacitus finishes two of his books, the Agricola and the Germania.

98 AD

Trajan defeats the Bructeri in Germania and returns to Rome as a hero.


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